LaFollette, Robert - Wisconsin Republican who ran for US presidency on Progressive Party ticket in 1924.
Lassalle, Ferdinand - (1825-1864) One of the founders of German working- class movement. Marx denounced his characterization of all other classes in German society as 'one reactionary mass' - as leading him to support absolutist Prussian regime against its half-hearted bourgeois opponents. His followers formed one of the wings of the German Social Democratic Party (SPD) when it was formed, in opposition to the Marxist wing lead by Liebknecht.
The Left Opposition (Bolshevik- Leninists) - Formed in 1923 as a faction of the Russian Communist Party, and the International Left Opposition (ILO) was formed in 1930 as a faction of the Comintern. A group of ILO leaders met with Trotsky when he was in Copenhagen in November 1932, and an international preconference of the ILO was held in Paris in February 1933. When the ILO decided to work for the creation of a new International in 1933, it also changed its name to the International Communist League. Trotsky proposed that the Fourth International be founded at an ICL conference held in Geneva in 1936, but the conference disagreed and instead established the Movement for the Fourth International. The founding conference of the Fourth International was held in Paris in September 1938. It held one more conference during Trotsky's lifetime - an emergency conference in the Western Hemisphere in May 1940, which adopted a manifesto on World War II written by Trotsky.
Left Social Revolutionaries - Left wing of the Russian Social Revolutionary Party. As a separate party they participated for a brief time in the government set up by the Bolsheviks, but a few months after the October Revolution were organizing anti-Bolshevik uprisings.
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich - (1870-1924) Restored Marxism as the theory and practice of revolution in the imperialist epoch after it had been debased by the opportunists, revisionists, and fatalists of the Second International. He initiated the tendency that became known as Bolshevism, which was the first to point the way on how to build the kind of party needed to lead a working-class revolution. He was the first Marxist to fully understand and explain the central importance of the colonial and national struggles. He led the first victorious workers' revolution in 1917, and served as the first head of state of the Soviet government. He founded the Communist International and helped to elaborate its principles, strategy, and tactics. He prepared a fight against the bureaucratization of the Russian Communist Party and the Soviet state, but died before he could carry it out.
Liebknecht, Karl - (1871-1919) Son of SPD founder Wilheim Liebknecht, joined party 1900. Set up Socialist Youth International 1907, and jailed in the same year for writing Militarism and Anti-Militarism. Reichstag deputy from 1912, first member to vote against war credits in December 1914. Founded Spartacists (Spartacus League); jailed 1916 for anti-war agitation. Amnestied in 1918, he took part in preparations for November actions and led the Revolutionary Committee during Berlin January uprising. A leader of the KPD, he was murdered by the Freikorps in 1919.
Liebknecht, Wilhelm - (1826-1900) Friend of Marx. Founder and leader of German Social Democracy (SPD). Became a Reichstag Deputy. Jailed for opposition to Franco-Prussian War.
Lumpenproletariat - Roughly translatable as "slum proletariat," covers the outcast, degenerated, and submerged elements such as beggars, prostitutes, gangsters, petty criminals, the chronically unemployed, the old and broken, to be found in all modem industrial cities. The ranks of these poor non-producers are swelled by the addition of the unemployed in times of social crisis. Reactionary and fascist demagogues have found some of their mass base in the lumpenproletariat - whose atomized condition militates against their adopting class-conscious, proletarian attitudes.
Luxemburg, Rosa - 1871-1919. Joined movement in Poland in 1887; exiled in 1889; leader of SDKP (Polish Social Democrats); joined SDP in Germany 1898; on Second International bureau from 1903; leader of left wing against revisionist right and, after 1910, against Kautskyist group; leading revolutionary opponent of war; founder of Spartacus group. In prison for most of the war, she became the chief writer for Die Rote Fahne November 1918-January 1919. Founder and leader of the KPD; she opposed the call for the January rising, although this was not reflected in her articles. Her arrest was ordered by the Social Democratic government for her participation in the uprising, and she was brutally murdered by the SDP-instigated Freikorps at the same time as Liebknecht.